The International Union of Biochemists (IUB) after years of research has come to a conclusion regarding the categorization of the enzymes. It has grouped the various types of enzymes into six classes. The basis of the enzyme categorization largely depends on the biochemical properties and then the compositional aspects are also considered. The classification list The enzymes are divided in the following categories: - Oxidoreductases - Hydrolases - Transferases - Lyases - Ligases - Isomerases One interesting fact related to this classification is that the nomenclature of an enzyme is finally determined by the name of its functional class. The end name of the enzyme like dehydrogenases is derived from the class or category as stated by the IUB. Properties of each category Oxidoreductases, does the name indicate towards some particular types of reactions? Do you find the name close to the processes of oxidation and reduction? You are right.
The name has been so given because this particular category of enzymes deals with the addition and removal of hydrogen atoms. Hydrolases, the name clearly indicates the relation of this category of enzymes with water. The process of hydrolyzing in the formation of a chemical bond in a chemical reaction makes use of this type of enzymes. Tranferases ought to have the property of transferring functional groups in body's metabolic process.
In the cell where phosphate is transferred from the ATP to another site, the enzyme called kinases takes the lead position to catalyse the process. Kinases actually fall under the category of trasfereases. Lyases operate in the bond formation. Wherever in the formation of double bonds water, Carbon dioxide molecules are required the enzymes in the category of Lyases plays active role. Ligases have a relation with some kind of joining mechanism.
When there is a need to join two chemical groups together, the energy required to regulate this process is derived from the ATP. And the catalyst that enhances the process belongs to the ligases group. Isomerases, is closely related to isomerism. What are isomers? The broader definition in Chemistry states that isomers are those substances with have same chemical formula but they differ in their atomic formula. In the biochemical reaction, the isomerases enzyme category helps in the process of arrangement of the atoms in isomers by shifting different chemical groups. In a nutshell it can be thus regarded that the different categories of enzymes are actually engaged in a range of chemical reactions.
Hence such a classification makes the understanding of the functional groups more convenient.
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